Saturday, August 28, 2010


If u are a windows user, you certainly would have made a media player play-list or at least seen it.Even some torrent downloads have a play-list in the folder.

Ever wondered how it is stored or how to make one without using media player.The playlist is stored in the form of a file with extension '.m3u'. They contain nothing but the path of the songs you selected, in order of your selection. Creating one is also very easy.
Creating a play-list
Lets make a play-list in a folder containing 2 media files abc.mp3 and def.mp3.
First of all create a new text document.
give it any name say playlist.txt.
Now just enter the names of your media files in it. In the order of your choice.
Now change the extension of playlist.txt to .m3u

There it is. Your play-list is ready. Double click on it and listen to your songs.

Friday, August 27, 2010



HIBERFIL.SYS is a file the system creates when the computer goes into hibernation mode. Windows uses the file when it is turned back on. If you don't need hibernation mode and want to delete the file you need to turn the hibernation option off before Windows will allow you to delete the file. The procedure for turning hibernation off differs markedly between Windows XP and Vista. The file size depends largely on the size of active RAM in the computer as the contents of the file are basically a RAM image.

Windows XP
* Procedure for Windows XP. This procedure makes use of the graphical user interface.
o Start | Control Panel | Power Options
o Go to the Hibernate Tab.
o Uncheck the Enable Hibernation box if you don't need the hibernation function.
o The file should now be able to be deleted.
* How to Troubleshoot Hibernation and Standby Problems in Windows XP. See this Microsoft Knowledgebase article.
Windows Vista
* Procedure for Windows Vista and Windows 7. This procedure requires that you be an administrator and uses the command line.
o Start | All Programs | Accessories
o Right click on the Command Prompt entry and choose Run as Administrator from the context menu that pops up (OK any UAC queries about doing this).
o A Command Prompt window should open.
o At the command prompt (where the flashing cursor is) type powercfg.exe /hibernate off and press the Enter key.
o The box should flash and you'll be back at the Command Prompt; type exit and press the Enter key to exit the Command Prompt mode.
o Hibernation should now be turned off and the file HIBERFILE.SYS deleted. If you want to turn it back on repeat the procedure and use /hibernate on instead.
o More Information: Microsoft Support documentWeb Link. A method of doing this using the graphical user interface is available using the Disk Cleanup Wizard. See the writeup hereWeb Link for that if you absolutely refuse to use the command prompt.
* How to Troubleshoot Hibernation and Standby Problems in Windows Vista. See this Microsoft Knowledgebase article.

Thursday, August 26, 2010

Access tokens

An access token is an object that describes the security context of a process or thread. The information in a token includes the identity and privileges of the user account associated with the process or thread. When a user logs on, the system verifies the user's password by comparing it with information stored in a security database. If the password is authenticated, the system produces an access token. Every process executed on behalf of this user has a copy of this access token.

The system uses an access token to identify the user when a thread interacts with a securable object or tries to perform a system task that requires privileges. Access tokens contain the following information:

•The security identifier (SID) for the user's account
•SIDs for the groups of which the user is a member
•A logon SID that identifies the current logon session
•A list of the privileges held by either the user or the user's groups
•An owner SID
•The SID for the primary group
•The default DACL that the system uses when the user creates a securable object without specifying a security descriptor
•The source of the access token
•Whether the token is a primary or impersonation token
•An optional list of restricting SIDs
•Current impersonation levels
•Other statistics
Every process has a primary token that describes the security context of the user account associated with the process. By default, the system uses the primary token when a thread of the process interacts with a securable object. Moreover, a thread can impersonate a client account. Impersonation allows the thread to interact with securable objects using the client's security context. A thread that is impersonating a client has both a primary token and an impersonation token.

The two types of tokens:

Primary token
Primary tokens can only be associated to processes, and they represent a process's security subject. The creation of primary tokens and their association to processes are both privileged operations, requiring two different privileges in the name of privilege separation - the typical scenario sees the authentication service creating the token, and a logon service associating it to the user's operating system shell. Processes initially inherit a copy of the parent process's primary token. Impersonation tokens can only be associated to threads, and they represent a client process's security subject. Impersonation tokens are usually created and associated to the current thread implicitly, by IPC mechanisms such as DCE RPC, DDE and named pipes.

Impersonation token
Impersonation is a security concept unique to Windows NT, that allows a server application to temporarily "be" the client in terms of access to secure objects. Impersonation has three possible levels: identification, letting the server inspect the client's identity, impersonation, letting the server act on behalf of the client, and delegation, same as impersonation but extended to remote systems to which the server connects (through the preservation of credentials). The client can choose the maximum impersonation level (if any) available to the server as a connection parameter. Delegation and impersonation are privileged operations (impersonation initially wasn't, but historical carelessness in the implementation of client APIs failing to restrict the default level to "identification", letting an unprivileged server impersonate an unwilling privileged client, called for it).

Wednesday, August 18, 2010

Innovative ideas

Again from Google this one is called Google Sets
This service lets u enter a list of items from any set.
Then on submitting our list of items, google will automatically generate a list. Interesting stuff really
Check it out on:

Innovative ideas:

This time it is Google Image Swirl
The Google Image Swirl to represent ur search result in an innovative way.

all ur data is arranged hierarchically in groups and subgroups based on visual and semantic similarity.It is mainly useful if ur search query is ambiguous eg, Apple & Jaguar

You can visit the site at:

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

The most dangerous earthquake in the world

The most dangerous earthquake in the world happened in Chile on 22 MAY 1960
The magnitude in Richter scale being:9.5
Here are images showing the devastations:

Thursday, August 12, 2010

Here is a collections of amazing illusions

Is it a duck or a rabbit??

Are the gears moving or they are stagant??

Do you see black dots in the white areas?

Monday, August 9, 2010

The symbol for Rupee

This the picture of the symbol for the Indian Currency.
Designed by D Uday Kumar, it is based on Devnagari script. It is also similar to English alphabet 'R'. The two parrallel lines are used to denote the tricolour.